Quality, culture and motivation can be viewed as three points on a triangle. All are difficult to define. It is probably the case that it is not possible to consider them in isolation, since they all are characteristics of the way in which staff experience an organization. One approach which has sought to embed quality within the culture of an organization is total quality management (TQM). Library and information services managers have long recognized the need for customer orientation that is inherent in the TQM philosophy, and some have sought to implement TQM or have been involved with TQM initiatives within organizations that have been involved in TQM. In addition, customer care and other customer-focused programmes have been used in training those library staff who are in direct contact with the public.


TQM can be characterized as follows:

(1)  Quality is customer defined.

Quality is defined in terms of customers’ perceptions or, in a more complex model that is widely debated in the service quality literature, as the gap between expectations and perceptions. Such customer focus requires not only an attention to internal processes, but also an awareness of the external marketplace. Only a match between the requirements of the marketplace and the internal processes and operations will lead to a quality service


(2) Internal and external customers are both important.

The only way to ensure that the organization has a focus on customers which has an equal affect on all departments and teams, including that not in direct contact with the external customer, is to encourage all employees to identify those to whom they provide a service and to view those people as their internal customers. In this way the customer orientation can permeate the organization.


(3) Employee involvement.

Employee involvement follows automatically from the need for all employees to consider their internal customer. Employee involvement means that each individual must take the initiative and not rely on someone else. In order for this to be achieved the organization needs a culture which encourages this behaviour. Everyone must understand that they contribute equally to quality and can only succeed through cooperation and support.


(4)  Error-free processes.

The focus of TQM is on prevention to eliminate waste, reduce costs and achieve error-free processes. The traditional approach to TQM, which developed in a manufacturing environment, was a strong focus on process quality control. Service managers need to interpret this focus in a way that is appropriate for services with inherent variability and the less controllable element of the customer.


(5)  Performance measurement.

Performance needs to be based on timely measures of, and feedback on, performance through superior quality information systems.


(6)  Continuous improvement.

Continuous improvement must be seen as the responsibility of everyone in the organization. To develop this focus on training, education, communication, recognition of achievements and teamwork is often seen as appropriate While there may not be universal agreement as to the most effective way to create a quality culture, the above six points would be accepted by most proponents. These characteristics identify the central role of motivation in creating a quality culture, and illustrate the way in which TQM might be used to create that culture. We start with a brief review of some of the established theories concerning motivation and then seek to apply these to libraries in the 1990s.


…Further explanation refers to the source below…


Source: Motivation of staff in libraries by Jennifer Rowley from Emeraldinsight database